We would like to thank volunteer Timothy Ruppert for the images and descriptions of the National Cryptologic Museum.

National Cryptologic Museum Entrance

Jade and Purple Encryption Machines

Japanese created cypher machines based on the Japanese Katakana alphabet. Though the machine used switches to generate high-level encryption, they could not be removed and rearranged, which limited the machine’s capabilities. Messages created by Purple, which differed from Jade in that it included a plugboard, was later deciphered by the U.S. Army.

National Security Agency. “National Cryptologic Museum.” National Cryptologic Museum Exhibit Information, National Security Agency, 24 June 2016, www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#jade-purple.

WWII Kana Typewriter

Purchased by the Office of Naval intelligence in order to assist with deciphering Japanese Morse-code, this typewriter was developed so that the keys included the kana characters of the Japanese Morse code alongside their lowercase English counterparts.

Gessler, Nicholas. “Collections in Cryptology.” Duke University, 11 Nov. 2017, people.duke.edu/~ng46/collections/crypto-underwood.htm.

SP 600 Super Pro Receiver

Code Talker Receiver

Receiver used during WWI by the United States Code Talkers, which involved the speakers of many indigenous languages, including most notably Navajo, to protect radio communication amongst American forces.

National Security Agency. “National Cryptologic Museum.” National Cryptologic Museum Exhibit Information, National Security Agency, 24 June 2016, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#code_talkers.

Tunny Machine

The Tunny machine was a portable German Army machine capable of simultaneously enciphering and transmitting messages. The machine was based on the Baudot cipher and was later cracked by the British with the help of their programmable computer Colossus.

National Security Agency. “National Cryptologic Museum.” National Cryptologic Museum Exhibit Information, National Security Agency, 24 June 2016, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#tunny-sturgeon.

Colossus

One of the world’s first programmable computers, Colossus, was built by the British to decipher the German enciphered codes created by the Tunny machine. The original Colossus went operational early 1944, with the second, faster version, going operational a few months later.

National Cryptologic Museum Foundation. “Colossus Artifact.” National Cryptologic Museum Foundation, 11 Nov. 2017, cryptologicfoundation.org/visit/museum/acquisitions/acquisitionarchivessection/individualequipmentitems/colossus_artifact.html.

Danish Cipher Device

Cipher disk used by the Danish Ministry of the Interior which used a polyalphabetic substitution method for enciphering messages.

Proc, Jerry. “CIPHER DEVICE – EARLY WESTERN EUROPEAN.” The Web Pages of Jerry Proc, 2012, www.jproc.ca/crypto/disk_cipher_western_european.html.

Hebern Electric Code Machine

This was a rotary-based machine which could encipher and decipher messages by transmitting electrical impulses across the switchable rotors.

National Museum of American History. “Hebern Electric Super Code Cipher Machine.” National Museum of American History, 11 Nov. 2017, americanhistory.si.edu/collections/search/object/nmah_694514.

PACE TR-10 Analog Computer

Believed to be the first transistorized desktop analog computer usethe manipulation of knobs, switches, and wires.

Proc, Jerry. “PACE TR-10 Analog Computer.” The Web Pages of Jerry Proc, Nov. 2017, www.jproc.ca/crypto/pace_tr10.html.

Electronic Associates Inc. Pace TR-10 Analog Computer. Electronic Associates Inc, Pace TR-10 Analog Computer, www.analogmuseum.org/library/eai_tr-10.pdf.

Tractor Tape Cartridge

The Harvest computer was developed by IBM and included many commercially available parts, as well as some made specifically for both the NSA and the Atomic Energy Commission. This photo depicts the TRACTOR tape storage system, capable of a read/write speed of 1.4 million characters per second, used on the Harvest computer.

National Security Agency. Estimated Cost of HARVEST System. National Security Agency, 1957, Estimated Cost of HARVEST System, www.nsa.gov/news-features/declassified-documents/nsa-60th-timeline/assets/files/1950s/19570517_Doc_Acc23146_Estimated.pdf.

IBM. “(IBM) Tractor Tape Cartridge.” IBM Archives, 11 Nov. 2017, www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/attic3/attic3_020.html.

U.S Naval Forces Vietnam Patch

1st Radio Research Company Cam Ranh Bay Patch

US Army Security Agency Patch

The U.S. Army Security Agency emerged in 1945 after a reorganization of the previously created Signal Security Agency. The organization carried out electronic intelligence and electronic warfare, particularly during the Vietnam War.

National Security Agency. “Orgins of the Army Security Agency.” National Security Agency, 3 May 2016, www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/vigilance-park/origins-of-asa.shtml.

US Army 265th Radio Research Command Patch

STS-4 Mission Patch

Launched in June 1982 with the crew members Mattingly and Hartsfield, the Columbia also included a classified DoD payload as well as experiments from university students.

Ryba, Jeanne. “STS-4.” NASA, NASA, Nov. 2017, www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-4.html.

Operation Desert Storm Patch

Operation Desert Storm, commonly referred to as the Gulf War, began on 17 January 1991.  In response to the Iraqi invasion of neighboring Kuwait, an alliance developed between 40 countries, including Arab nations, NATO, and even the Soviet Union, to oppose the Iraqi annexation. The war, lasting less than two months, ended in a decisive victory for the coalition.

Lange, Katie. “6 Things to Know About Operation Desert Storm.” DoDLive, United States Department of Defense, 15 Jan. 2016, www.dodlive.mil/2016/01/15/6-things-to-know-about-operation-desert-storm/.

US Army Intelligence and Security Command Patch

Started in early 1977, INSCOM was created to provide the U.S. Army with intelligence products, security operations, and electronic warfare capabilities. Though they absorbed other agencies and responsibilities since its inception, INSCOM continues to provide support even as the needs shifted from the Cold War to post-9/11.

 

INSCOM History Office. “The INSCOM Story.” United States Army Intelligence and Security Command, United States Army Intelligence and Security Command, 3 Nov. 2017, www.inscom.army.mil/organization/History.aspx.

Enigma Machine

The German built Enigma machines utilized five rotors which could be rearranged in order to create enciphered text. In order to further complicate decoding, the Germans would change their settings daily. Though the German’s believed such enciphered text to be unbreakable by the Allied Forces, the code was eventually cracked by British Mathematician Alan Turing.

Lycett, Andrew. “History – Enigma.” BBC, BBC, 11 Nov. 2017, www.bbc.co.uk/history/topics/enigma.

Imperial War Museum. “How Alan Turing Cracked The Enigma Code.” Imperial War Museums, 11 Nov. 2017, www.iwm.org.uk/history/how-alan-turing-cracked-the-enigma-code.

SIGABA

The SIGABA was a U.S. created cipher machine developed by collaboration of the U.S. Army and U.S. Navy. Like many other systems at the time, SIGABA used an assortment of wheels or rotors to encipher text. Prior to its creation, the US Army and Navy developed and fielded their own separate cryptographic systems with only limited cooperation.

Crypto Museum. “SIGABA ECM II.” Crypto Museum, 10 Sept. 2017, www.cryptomuseum.com/crypto/usa/sigaba/index.htm.

ADONIS (KL-7)

Developed by the NSA in 1952 to replace the SIGABA, the ADONIS allowed for secure communications between the United States and NATO allies. The machine functioned similarly to the German Enigma, and contained a total of eight rotors. The ADONIS was phased out in the 1980’s, with the Canadian Navy sending the final unclassified message via the machine on 30 June 1983.

Crypto Museum. “KL-7 Adonis, Pollux.” Crypto Museum, 7 Aug. 2017, www.cryptomuseum.com/crypto/usa/kl7/index.htm.

National Security Agency. “National Cryptologic Museum.” National Cryptologic Museum Exhibit Information, National Security Agency, 24 June 2016, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#adonis.

RACE (KL-51)

RACE was a Norwegian cipher machine developed in the late 1970’s to replace the soon-to-be phased out ADONIS systems. The device saw use in many NATO countries including the U.S. and Canada. RACE also had a civilian version known as Cryptel 265, which used a less powerful algorithm for encryption. Users began phasing the machines out of use starting in 2006, though some were still in use as late as 2010.

Crypto Museum. “RACE KL-51.” Crypto Museum, 28 Aug. 2015, www.cryptomuseum.com/crypto/stk/race/index.htm.

KSD-64 Key Device

Developed by the NSA, the KSD-64 Key Device that, when turned, could encrypt correspondence across the STU-III telephones.

Crypto Museum. “KSD-54 A.” Crypto Museum, 9 Mar. 2017, www.cryptomuseum.com/crypto/usa/ksd64/index.htm.

KGR-29

Developed by the NSA, KGR-29’s were designed to assist the U.S. Air Force’s in their challenge of employing a secure standardized communication interface between ground stations and satellites. KGR-29’s were later replaced by the KG-57.

National Security Agency. “National Cryptologic Museum.” National Cryptologic Museum Exhibit Information, National Security Agency, 24 June 2016, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#kgr-29.

KG-46

Capable of both encryption and decryption, the KG-46 secured data communication between satellites and ground stations.

National Security Agency. “National Cryptologic Museum.” National Cryptologic Museum Exhibit Information, National Security Agency, 24 June 2016, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#kg-46.

KG-57

Used to secure space communications via encryption, decryption, and authentication, the KG-57 replaced the earlier KGR-29 and offered reduced size, weight, and power consumption than the predecessor. The KG-57 was later replaced by the Application Specific Integrated circuit (ASIC) which are still used today.

National Security Agency. “National Cryptologic Museum.” National Cryptologic Museum Exhibit Information, National Security Agency, 24 June 2016, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#kg-57.

Russian Magnetic Tape

U.S. Magnetic Tape

StorageTek Automated Tape Cartridge System

Capable of holding 6,000 tapes containing 50 gigabytes of data, this automated tape  cartridge system can hold 300 terabytes of data. The StorageTek machine utilized a robotic arm to retrieve the cartridges and is capable of exchanging 175 of them each hour.

National Security Agency. “National Cryptologic Museum.” National Cryptologic Museum Exhibit Information, National Security Agency, 24 June 2016, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#storagetek.

CRAY XMP-24 Supercomputer